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Jumat, 24 Oktober 2014

Using Peer Response Groups Strategy to Improve Students’ Writing Skills: A Guide for EFL Teachers

Diposkan oleh Annisa Nazar di 12.29 0 komentar Link ke posting ini
Using Peer Response Groups Strategy to Improve Students’ Writing Skills: A Guide for EFL Teachers
Abstract
            These materials were developed to help guide an EFL teacher’s approach to incorporating peers groups as one of language learning strategy.  Peer response groups aim to improve students’ self correction and writing skills. Writer think the strategy is useful because peer response groups leads to increased achievement by helping students develop judgment and skills more quickly than working individually. All students can benefit from this strategy in learning, especially start from learning writing in Senior High School.

I. Introduction
            Writing well is not just an option for students now; it has become a dire necessity in the study of a second or foreign language. Along with others skill in English, writing is considered as one way to measure individual’s language proficiency in most contexts education level in ESL/EFL country. From a pedagogical point of view, writing is not a natural activity but is a highly complex task. In general, students need to master the competencies expected based on five components in the profile of writing by Jacob (1981) which they are content, organization, vocabulary, language use and mechanic. We can say that, writing is a skill that involves a number of complex rhetorical and linguistic operations which must be taught.
            Related to phenomena in Indonesian senior high school level, curriculum target in English Language Teaching (ELT) is required students to produce the types of text (genres) include short functional texts, monologues and essays of certain genres. However, almost students have greater difficulty every produce a piece of text than others skill. Many Indonesian’ students failed in writing skill such as writing sentences, paragraphs development (organization), and usage of correct grammar. Beside that, teacher’s factor also influenced students’ ability to develop and improve writing ability. Many teachers still use the traditional classroom management where the classroom organization was a teacher fronted one, with students sitting in rows facing the teacher.
            Considering the explanation above, Indonesian English teachers must have responsibility as they are demanded to have teaching strategy in order to solve the problem faced by the students in learning writing skill. According Swan (2009:121) in order to teach the forms of the target language, the conventions for their use, and the receptive and productive skills necessary for their effective retrieval and deployment, teachers need interesting and engaging presentation and practice activities. So that, teachers need the strategy that can enrich the teaching of writing in many ways and can be used by students as their own language learning strategies, especially in writing.
            Peer response group is one of the strategies of Cooperative Language Learning (CLL) that can be used in writing class. By implementing peer writing groups, teacher encourage students to give, seek, and react to oral feedback among themselves as they write, in addition to reacting to the teacher’s traditional comments on finished papers (Herman in Ericdigests : 2009). Working in peers group, students become skilled at cooperating with others and express their own opinions, ideas and feelings guided by the teacher. Students can help each other and themselves through peer response groups. Peer response groups, if set up carefully, can help students master writing skills, sharpen their editing skills, and become better editors of their own work.

II. The Nature of Peer Response Groups
            The use of peer response groups in writing classrooms has become increasingly popular in recent years as emphasis has shifted from product to process. Though Gere (1987) notes that peer response can be traced back as early as the writing groups of colonial America, peer response was not popularized as a teaching technique until the dawn of the process movement. Moffett (1968) and Murray (1968) introduced the benefits of peer response two years later and then following Elbow’s germinal work (1973) “Writing without teachers”, there was a large boom in peer response and writing group literature during the mid-1970 and throughout the 1980.     
            There are a number of terms that are used interchangeably and refer to peer response group such as peer review, peer feedback, peer editing, peer critique but all of them share the same idea where students offer constructive criticism after reading and evaluating each other’s work. Liu and Hansen (2002) defined it as “the use of learners as sources of information and interact ants for each other in such a way that learners assume roles and responsibilities normally taken on by formally trained teacher, tutor, or editor in commenting on and critiquing each other’s drafts in both written and oral formats in the process of writing” (p.75). In short, peer response provides an opportunity for students to discuss and formulate ideas about the content of their writing as well as to help each other in developing writing skill.

a.   Why Is This Strategy Useful?
            Peer response groups aim to improve students’ language development and skills. The strategy pairs or groups students together to work on a task where teachers emphasize peer interaction and discussion to complete the tasks. This strategy is useful because collaborative learning in small groups leads to increased achievement by helping students develop judgment and skills more quickly than working individually. All students can benefit from this strategy, especially English language learners started from senior high school till university level.
Ferris, D and Hedgcock in their book Teaching ESL Composition state six principles for effective peer response:
1.    Make peer response integral part of the course
2.    Model the process
3.    Build peer response skill progressively throughout the term
4.    Structure the response task
5.    Vary peer response activities
6.    Hold students accountable for giving feedback and for considering any feedback they receive.
            Based on the explanation above, EFL teachers can adopt and modify some basic principle of peer response group that suitable for EFL students context in English Language Teaching (ELT) in classroom instruction.
            For examples, teacher can instruct students in tutoring practices or in assuming roles in a small group. In peer tutoring, two students take on the roles of tutor and tutee or coach and player. Teachers can use this strategy for tasks such as reading a passage aloud and answering comprehension questions. It can also be used in practicing conversations with guided discussion questions.
            In peer response groups, four or five students share responsibility for a task. The task can be reading and answering comprehension questions. Another task can be editing a piece of writing. When editing as a peer response group, one student edits punctuation, one student edits spelling, and one student provides general feedback. Teachers can group students by age or ability or they can create mixed groups.
            In this model of learning, learners have great responsibility for their learning as we are moving from teacher-centered to learner-centered approaches to teaching and learning. Finally, peer review activities build a sense of classroom community. Students learn to communicate effectively, and accept different perspectives while listening carefully, thinking critically, and participating constructively. Like Michael Swan has stated in his article that is not whether students ‘have read or listened successfully’, but what, if anything, they have learnt in the process.

b.   The Implementing of Peer Response Strategy in Writing Classroom Activity
            It is easy to think that you, as the teacher, are the only person who can or should respond to your students' writing, but don't forget the other people in the classroom as well, they are the students! Peer response group basically means as way made students interest in writing activity, develops values of caring and sharing among students. The efficiency of peer response group depends on two factors that are teacher planning and students training. In order to support the success of application of this strategy, there are some guidelines for EFL teachers when implementing peer response group in EFL writing class.
            Firtsly, the students is encouraged to write paragraphs and essays and then they are asked to comment and give feedback on each other’s paragraphs and essays. In this activity, students having their papers workshopped will read their papers aloud while their group members listen attentively and follow along on their copies. Reading each other's work will expose the students to different ideas and different levels and ways of using English. This is engaging students in meaningful and problem-solving activities that promote their critical thinking skills and creativity rather than receiving and memorizing information.
            Secondly, the students are asked to evaluate each other’s work based on a checklist that was given to them. The teachers train the students on how to give constructive feedback and demonstrated that on some paragraphs and essays. Teacher can ask students to answer questions about the organisation of the writing and the content, e.g. Is there enough information? Is it interesting? How can it be improved?  It can be answered when they read of their classmates writing carefully several times and focus their attention on the meaning of  text. Realise that peers have the opportunity to tell what they do not understand about his or her writing, to ask questions about it, and to point out what peers like about it. If students have any questions or do not know how to respond to their classmate's writing, they can ask teacher for help.
            By the end of the process, the students exchanged their assignments and they were asked to comment on each other’s writings. Based on the comments that they gave to each other, they revised, reorganized and edited their work. They repeated the process several times before the submission of the final version to the teacher.

III. Problems and Discussion
            Despite its perceived benefits, some researchers found that peer response group were viewed with some disappointed result and produced few benefits especially in EFL/ESL country. Students feedback considered does not help revision in drafting process because they are not capable of providing a high-quality feedback similar to that offered by their teachers. This peer response approach also contains complex and controversial issues in institutes or classroom contexts (Liu and Hansen, 2002). For instance, multi-cultural learners in the classrooms, especially ESL settings, often have difficulties addressing suggestions and ideas to peers because of few peer feedback activities. Cultural factors influence the interactions with learners and the revision processes in the peer response workshop.
            Learners from Asian countries (e.g., China or Japan) become reluctant to remark on their products and are rather more likely to work toward maintaining a harmonious balance with others (Carson and Nelson 1996; Goldstein, 2005). This case will happen in Indonesian context that English as Foreign Language. Despite of culture, the mastery of target language is big obstacle to develop good response in group of writing.
            Many researchers think that students should be given intensive training to enable them to participate fully in the process. Berg (1999) examined the effects of peer response on ESL students’ revision strategies and writing outcomes. The main question addressed in her study is whether trained peer responseinfluences writing outcomes, revision strategies, and peer talk about ESL student texts. The study revealed that “trained peer response positively affected writing outcomes, revision strategies, and peer talk about ESL student texts” (p.240). Berg confirmed the success of peer response training by making a comparison for revision outcomes after peer feedback by trained and untrained students. As a result, if it is introduced with caution and after training students, it could be a part of any English writing classroom instructions.

a.    Preparing Students for Peer Response Groups
            Students may have little exposure to different forms of assessment and so may lack the necessary skills and judgements to effectively manage self and peer correction. It is helpful to introduce students to the concepts and elements of peer response group. To suitable for EFL context in practices, the writer have assembled a kit of basic principles and tested exercises which is combining from many resourse. It could help teachers consolidate and improve the ways they teach peer writing and response in any course, with any size class, at any level of student mastery. Some of these activities can also be adapted for teaching more formal writing projects that undergo draft and revision.
1.      Set aside time for the initial peer activities to happen in class.
            The students spent two weeks doing pre-writing activities, generating ideas, reviewing the opinions in the textbook, organizing essay structures, and making a draft. After working on a draft for two weeks, the participants brought two copies of their drafts to hold peer feedback events and to receive written commentary from their peers. In each peer feedback session, all students randomly picked up one student’s essay and a peer feedback question sheet from a desk that the teacher prepared. They read the draft carefully and filled in the feedback sheet (expressing the good points, points to be revised, and suggestions).
2.     Giving some understanding of peer resaponse group
            In order for peer groups to produce such results, they require careful and detailed guidance about what is peer response?
peer (n) a person of your age group
—  your friends
—  your classmates
—  your co-workers
response (n) feedback
—  questions
—  comments
—  suggestions
3.     Share responsibility
Everyone’s job is to provide feedback for other students.
Do not let one or two people dominate the discussion.
4. Be aware of time
§  Set a time limit for responding to others’ writing.
§  Everyone should get a turn.
§  Respond with general impressions first.
o   what you liked
o   what you didn’t understand
§  Give more specific feedback last.
o   what can be added
o   what can be deleted
o   what can be changed
5. Allow time for reading
ü  Prepare photocopies of your work for your peers.
ü  Read your work aloud to your peers or give them time to read silently.
6. Be supportive and constructive
ü  Be considerate of others’ feelings.
ü  Focus on meaning, not on minor errors in grammar or spelling.
ü  The writer makes the final decisions about comments and suggestions.
            The best of peer response groups is can be helps students to interact and increase their motivation. The aim is to move from a teacher-centered classroom into a student-centered classroom where the students confer and help each other. They read and comment on each other’s work, thus increasing their opportunities for interaction and improving their social relations and increasing their self-confidence.
            First, the use of such groups has increased with the shift to the process approach to writing (Flower & Hayes, 1981) and the consequent emphasis on helping students to acquire strategies "for getting started ... for drafting ... for revising ... and for editing" (Silva, 1990, p. 15).
             Second, in the communicative language classroom the focus is on student- centered learning as opposed to the more traditional teacher-fronted class (Savignon, 1991). peer response groups are a form of cooperative language learning, the benefits of which are well researched (McGroarty, 1989). These benefits include academic achievement and language development as well as improved social relations and increased self-confidence (Coelho, 1992; Slavin, 1991) In short, the use of peer response groups is supported by general theories of language learning, principles of cooperative learning, the cognitive process theory of writing, and theories of second language acquisition.

IV. CONCLUSION
            In EFL context, peer response group have a positive effects in writing classes to enhance students’ motivation and improve their writing skills. Peer response in process writing classes should be an integrated component of every writing course. By providing students opportunities to write, and to work with their peers via writing, a teacher gives students an opportunity to become active agents in their learning. However, peer response still needs further inquiry into the effectiveness of writing development.













PREFERENCES
            Al-Jamal, D. (2009). “The Impact of Peer Response in Enhancing Ninth Grader's Writing Skill”. Umm Al-Qura University Journal of Educational & Psychologic Sciences. Vol. 1-N0. 1 January 2009. (Retrieved November 2nd. 2012) http.//uqu. edu. sa/files2/tiny_mce /plugins/filemanager/files/admins/pag3673/e1. pdf.
            Berg, E. C. (1999) Preparing ESL students for peer response. TESOL Journal, 8 (2), 20-25.
            Carson, J. and Nelson, G. (1996) Chinese students’ perceptions of ESL peer response group interaction. Journal of Second Language Writing, 5 (1), 1-19.
            Ferris, D. and Hedgcock, J. S. (2005). Teaching ESL composition: purpose, process and practice (2nd ed.). London: Erlbaum.
            Hyland, K. (2003) Second language writing. Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress.
            Hansen, J. G. & Jun, Lui (2005). "Guiding Principles for Effective Peer Response". ELT journal. 59/1. 31-38.
            Liu, Jun, & Hansen, Jette, G. Peer Response in Second Language Writing Classrooms. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 2002.
            Li WeiVivian J. Cook. Contemporary Studies in Linguistic: One Language Teaching and Learning. Volume 1 Continuum 2009
            Nelson, G. L. & Murphy, J. M. (1993). “Peer response groups. do L2 writers use peer comments in revising their drafts?” TESOL Quarterly. 27. 135-142.
            Reid, Joy. Teaching ESL Writing. Englewood: Prentice Hall, 1993.
            Teaching Writing with Peer Response Groups: Encouraging Revision." ERIC Digest May 1989
            Zhang, S. (1995). “Reexamining the Effective Advantage of Peer Feedback in ESL Writing Class”. Journal of Second Language Writing 4. 3. 209-222.



Language Comprehension

Diposkan oleh Annisa Nazar di 12.18 0 komentar Link ke posting ini

Language Comprehension Psycholinguistics is the study of the mental representations and processes that are involved human language processing. Psycholinguistics is part of the field of cognitive science, and is the study of how individuals comprehend, produce and acquire language. It mainly addresses two questions : What knowledge of language is needed for us to use language ? And what cognitive processes are involved in the ordinary use of language ? Psycholinguists are also interested in the social rules involved in language use, and the brain mechanisms associated with language. Language comprehensionIn this part, language comprehension consist of number of levels of processing (for the convenience of exposition) : levels of speech processing, Words processing (internal lexicon), syntactic parsing and sentence understanding, connected discourse comprehension.a.    Perception of language : identification of isolated speech sounds and of continuous speech.
b.    The internal lexicon : representation and organization of semantic knowledge
(lexical access processes in comprehension).c.    Comprehension of sentences : syntactic and semantic aPsycholinguisticsroaches to
the construction of interpretations.d.     Discourse comprehension : Comprehension of discourse, Memory for discourse,
Schemata and discourse processing. Realistic models of human sentence comprehension must account for:·         Language has structure
·         Robustness to arbitrary input
·         Accurate disambiguation
·         Inference on basis of incomplete input (Tanenhaus et al., 1995; Altmann and Kamide, 1999; Kaiser and Trueswell, 2004)
·         Processing difficulty is differential and localized
For example for language has structure:·         The colored word sequences all have something in common:
·         The girl gave the dog a big sloppy kiss.
·         I gave the dog a big sloppy kiss.
·         Every boy on the left side of the room gave the dog a big sloppy kiss.
·         The teacher of this class gave the dog a big sloppy kiss.
 In linguistics, this commonality is that the underlined word sequences are all of the same phrase type. In this case, the phrase type is called a noun phrase. Languages have many different phrase types, and we can describe the grammar of a languages in how its phrase types come together. Linguistics and Language ProcessingTop-down vs. bottom-up processing a. top-down: We begin interpretation of a sentence spontaneously and automatically based on what information is available to us. For instance, we do not have to wait until we have analyzed all the phonemes in a sentence in order to understand it. b.  bottom-up: Do analysis to isolate phonemes, word boundaries, and relate these things to the mental lexicon. Can happen only piece by piece – no forward projection, no prediction. c. Comparing top-down and bottom-up processing:In a lexical priming study, suppose a word is lexically ambiguous and so has two meanings. However, suppose that only one of those meanings is appropriate, given the syntactic structure of the sentence the word is in. A person using very strong topdown processing would only be primed for the meaning which is appropriate, given the syntactic structure. A person using very strong bottom-up processing would be primed for both meanings, despite the fact that only one meaning is appropriate. Ex: Hoggle fell gracelessly to the ground.Top-down processing: prime only for soilBottom-up processing: prime for soil and grindSentence Comprehension during Literal Meaning ProcessingIn order to be able to understand the structure of sentences, people have to combine different sources of information relating to language constituents. That is, they have to be able to retrieve; (i) the semantic representation of each lexical item in a sentence, (ii) the grammatical information these items carry about their nature, (iii) the syntactic information about other items they can combine with (Chomsky 1980; 1986), and (iv) the kind of dependencies they may form (Pickering and Branigan 1998). Thus, thematic roles that specify the relationship between the constituents (e.g., agent, theme, recipient, instrument, and so on) and grammatical relations (e.g., subject, object, etc.) have to be assigned. Finally, people tend to tie the representation that is built through all these processes to the discourse context. In other words, the precise meaning that is assigned to a sentence is highly correlated with the discourse environment within which this sentence is presented. Factors that Affect ComprehensionIn this section, there are list some of the factors that may facilitate or inhibit comprehension. These can be distinguished in factors relating to individual differences and in factors relating to the properties of the to-be-understood material. With respect to individual differences, as with any other cognitive ability, comprehension skills may vary from one person to another, due to people’s varying degrees of competence and performance (Chomsky 1968). In other words, what makes “good” and “less-good” comprehenders is the fact that some may acquire all the necessary linguistic and extra-linguistic information for understanding, but be unable to apply it because of physiological limitations (e.g., restricted short-term memory capacity due to age or brain damage), or inadequacy of operating under stressful conditions that may disrupt the process of comprehension (e.g., time pressure or noisy environment). On the other hand, others may be capable of dealing with external factors but not possess the required knowledge (e.g., background knowledge and languagespecific information) to successfully construct meaning representations. Regarding the factors that are relevant to the to-be-understood material, it is expected that complex structures will be more difficult to understand than simple structures. The former create more relationships among linguistic elements, thus overloading the mind’s processing capacity, whereas the latter do not need any extra cognitive abilities to be processed. The nature of a text, for example stylistics, clarity of expressed ideas, and so on, may also determine how successful the process of comprehension can be. Finally, factors such as familiarity and frequency have been found to facilitate comprehension since the more familiar we are with certain structures and the more frequently we use them the easier it is to understand them when we read or hear them. The process of comprehension from a psycholinguistic perspective. Comprehension of literal meaning for words and word combinations is based on the integration of semantic features and inferences. For sentences, meaning representations result from the assignment of thematic roles and determination of syntactic categories in combination with semantic information and background knowledge. Text comprehension employs much of the same processes as sentence comprehension, yet entails a more enhanced participation of short-term and long-term memory since the processing task is cognitively more demanding. With respect to comprehension of figurative meaning, we showed that people tend to derive the literal meaning of an utterance first, and only when its testing against context does not result in a plausible interpretation do they seek alternative interpretations. Regarding factors that may affect comprehension, we distinguished between comprehender-specific and material-specific factors.References:1.    Ellis, Rod. 1994. The Study of Second Language Acquisiton. Oxford: Oxford University Press
2.    Steinberg, Danny D., H. Nagata and D.P Aline. 2001. Psycholinguistics: Language, Mind, and World (2nd edition). Londong: Longman
3.    Menyuk, Paula. The acquisition and development of language. Massachusetts institute of technology.
4.    Scovel, Thomas. 1998. Psycholinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press
5.    Clark, Herbert H and E.V Clark. 1977. Psychology and Language: an Introduction to Psycholinguistics. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
    

Selasa, 25 September 2012

Rumitnya antara cinta dan komitmen

Diposkan oleh Annisa Nazar di 20.52 0 komentar Link ke posting ini
Mungkin jika melihat dari judul sudah tampak rumit atau aneh. Tapi kadang itu bisa terjadi, antara hubungan cinta dan komitmen. Banyak orang yang hanya ingin menjalani cinta tanpa ada komitmen. Entah apa arti cinta kalo begitu jadinya. Harusnya dalam cinta akan melahirkan komitmen, tapi tak jarang dalam komitmen tidak ada cinta.

Senin, 26 Desember 2011

LEARNING HOW TO LEARN

Diposkan oleh Annisa Nazar di 20.02 0 komentar Link ke posting ini

LEARNING HOW TO LEARN
1.      Find your strengths.
Learning how to learn by find our strengths in both vital senses such as ears and ayes are experiential, mindful, and engaging. Through it we can explore a set of learning experiences that can be more effective and interesting to develop our English capability. Begin by explore your ears and listen to your teacher. Based on my experiences, I engaged train my ears as my first activities as an individual to became an active listener since I learned Actional Functional Model. In the active listening activity, intentionally focuses on who I was listening to, whether in a lecture, in a conversation, or a group, in order to understand what is said. So, I am interested to listening the news report on MetroTv which called Indonesian Now streaming every Saturdays, at 9 a. m. Tascha Liudmila and Dalton Tanonaka are news presenters of this show. Realize that, I should then be able to replay or repeat back in my own words what they have said. This does not mean I agree with, but rather understand, what they are saying. Understanding about this rule, I took one topic as my concern that I would told to someone else with what I have listened. One of the topic is kid and hajj where Mr. Dalton as a presenter of the information. I tried to be more concentration and listened carefully. After that, I told to my cousin, Indri what I have heard about kid and hajj. Every year, millions of Muslims travel to Makkah to perform Hajj. Hajj is the fifth pillar of Islam and is one of the most important duties we need to carry out. Now, children can explain or act out how a person may return from  Hajj and how to feel transformed by the experience.  Participants in this age group must perform a mock hajj and orally explain the basic rituals of hajj. Children should appear before judges with ihram.  They should be able to demonstrate tawaf, sai, jamrah, and the importance of the day of Eid Al-Adha to the judges. Besides, I will be always listening to English News Report to train my ears and find my strengths. Then, tell someone/friends what I have listened from the News. And one day, it has proved that I have a strong ears, of course, I will be always listen to my Tutor at lecturing and make it as my habit.
Then, I train my eyes by read a short article about some English Learning Strategies literature or book which related on my lecture.  Again, I told to my cousin Indri who can understand English well. Because of my home work about Psycholinguistics where I supposed to understand much of articles, I read about psycholinguistics scope that told as part of the field of cognitive science and is the study of how individuals comprehend, produce and acquire language. Especially in language acquisition, the article serves some definition, for example; language acquisition is studied in relation of three classes of variable. The terms of them are environmental factors, cognitive processes and innate linguistic mechanism. In those reading process, I use addition technique in reading, like skim the material.  Here I read only chapter headings, introductions, and summaries.  Beside that, because of my problem is lack of vocabulary, I read by highlighting and underlining key information, and taking notes. After that, I can re inform some important information of that article to others people, like my friends at campus. In discussion class, I saw a little progress in my self, like following the discussion actively, and able to shared my new ideas to my friends about lecturing materials. I hope, I can do this activity very well, so it is mean I have strong eyes. It will be more helpful to my life and make it as my habit in understanding English.

2.       Develop your intrinsic motivations and change your extrinsic motivations to be your intrinsic motivations since only intrinsic motivations help learners to be successful.
One thing that I have realized is about my motivation. As long as I live, in my personal, I only have an extrinsic motivation. Every time I do something, my motivation comes from outside an individual. My motivating factors are external, or outside, rewards such as money or grades. It has happened, because I do not understand about the nature of motivation exactly. I think it will be okay, do something or get something because people beside you, or to get reward. Yet, since I learned the lecture material about Actional Functional Model, I begin to understand about motivation and how to separate it. Intrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from inside an individual rather than from any external or outside rewards, such as money or grades. So that, I ask myself change my wrong motivation. I will become a person who will work on my English, because it is enjoyable. If I find some trouble in my English course, I will try finding a solution to a problem because the challenge of finding a solution is provides a sense of pleasure. I will leave my self who is someone work on the task because there is some reward involved, such as a prize from parents or a grade from my teacher.
I become aware external rewards are not enough to keep a person motivated. For example, last week, I have a lot of assignments of all lecturers; I have almost given up to do it. Especially my Psycholinguistics assignment that I need to read 16 articles, make their recension, make one paper, make reading report from two books and also two power point. It has made my crazy, and I decided did not make it. Why it can be happened? Because I may want to get a good grade on an assignment, but if the assignment does not interest anymore, the possibility of a good grade is not enough to maintain my motivation to put any effort into the project. I was really disappointed to my self, and I waked up from my silliness. I said to my self, I will do every single work because I would like to do it, not because someone. In my mind, everyone is born with the ability to think and learn a specialized cognitive code called human language. Many ways to acquire language understand and produce it, especially in English Language Learning. All languages work in the same way. They all have words and sentences and sound systems and grammatical relations. Like birds inherit the ability to fly and fish too swim, men also inherit the ability to think and to use language in a manner, which is unique to our species. Because of that, start from now, I already to motivate my self to learn and change my extrinsic motivation. I am going to speak English in my class and practice in my community. And sometime if I fell not confident with my self, I will stay continue practicing my English, even though my friends will laugh at me. It does not matter. We will not be enjoying with our self, if we always think about someone else think about us. Nothing will happen if we make mistake and don’t let it bother you. That is I have said to my self as an effort to change my mind set and motivation in learning and practice English.

 

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